Plaque, a sticky, colourless film containing bacteria constantly forms on your teeth. If plaque is not removed daily by brushing and flossing, it can harden and turn into tartar (calculus). Additionally, dental plaque will continue to form on the tartar. The plaque bacteria can infect your gums and teeth, and eventually, the gum tissue and bone that support the teeth gets infected.
Since brushing or flossing cannot remove tartar; a professional cleaning is required to remove tartar.
Scaling and polishing of teeth is a professional way to remove plaque which is accumulated and hardened into tartar. By scheduling regular check-ups — twice a year — early stage gum disease can be treated before it leads to a much more serious condition.
If gum disease is more advanced, scaling and root planning can be performed to treat diseased periodontal pockets and gum infection.
If periodontal pockets are more than 5 millimetres deep, that is, if you have moderate to severe periodontitis, gingival flap surgery may be performed by a periodontist to reduce periodontal pockets, as well as bone grafting to restore lost bone.